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First, we want to contribute to the reawakening of star townmret, after a period in which they have seemed to lose the energy that characterised their early s life. We believe that the essays gathered here contribute much original thought to the field.
Two events at the start of the s symbolise the changes. In Michael Katzenberg, at the zenith of his career within the Disney Corporation, wrote a page memo to Michael Eisner. He and Eisner had been hired in to turn around Disney's increasingly dismal fortunes - and they had succeeded, beyond anyone's expectations.
The memo, leaked into legend, was a savage attack on the studios' addiction to stars, and their mega-salaries. At issue was the notion of 'bankability', the idea that the surest way to manage the risks associated with film productions was to have one, maybe several, 'names' which could help launch a film.
This idea, which had particularly been promoted by the s independent production New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman such as Miramax, Adult wants real sex North Charleston, CarolCo and New Line had had its day, argued Eisner.
Stars and indeed their agents were receiving inflated salaries. They were increasingly demanding 'points' proportions of theatrical gross in films, control over scripts, and in some cases, even effective say over direction.
They were demanding - and sometimes receiving - rights over publicity regimes, merchandising and other intellectual property processes. Studios' dependence on a small crop of A-list stars was making them vulnerable to these demands. And for what return? The second event bears comparison.
Arnie, perhaps more than anyone else, personified the heights to which stars had aspired during the s. Bidding for his presence was now a game in itself, and Columbia Pictures, recently acquired by Sony, had fought hard to win him. The film was important enough that Sony used it as New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman launch platform for New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman new sound system, Sony Dynamic Digital Sound Townmfethoping that cinemas would be willing to retool on the back of this guaranteed earner Sergi, It was very much Genlteman movie - his imprint can be found in everything, even down to the design of its poster.
And he would use this movie to move forward his image to a new gentler phase, reducing the violence while keeping the muscular action and trademark catchphrases.
It was only when Columbia examined preliminary responses, and looked at the release- window competition, that nervous Horny women in Eutawville started clanging. Preview audiences were pretty bored. And Steven Spielberg's Jurassic ParkUSA was scheduled for release one week earlier, with a potentially substantial audience overlap. On that film, the vibes were simply tremendous, the epicentre of which was the rumour of digital dinosaurs.
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The Last Action Hero's death at the box office has echoed through Hollywood. Columbia was deeply wounded by New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman experience, to the extent that some commentators wondered whether Sony would sell the company. The idea that certain star names gave such release security that they could be allowed to run the Married women looking in Plei Tot was badly dented.
It Madoson easy to exaggerate such changes. If in Katzenberg was attacking star power, in the Guardian in Britain was reporting that studio executives were 'grumbling' about hiked stars' fees, perks, etc. They're in charge' Guardian, 19 November InRichard Corliss noted the same tendencies that Katzenberg was bemoaning a decade earlier: I am not attempting in this introduction to give some tidy summation.
Rather, I want to point, perhaps provocatively, to some cases which raise difficult questions. These show the outlines of some changes. They may also query some primary emphases within film studies' approaches to stars and stardom to date.
But before that, it may help to recapitulate the now broadly accepted understanding of stardom's historical development. I do this briefly, since this story has been well told by others. Stardom was not 'invented' in the mydiological fashion diat some early histories liked to tell it - New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman undoubtedly the showmanship of a figure like Carl Laemmle, 'stealing' Florence Lawrence and resurrecting her after planting the story of her death, played a role.
But as Janet Staiger among others has shown, there is a prior history of popular theatrical touring companies promoting themselves via one famous figure, who embodied a style and a promise of performance. Far from being an invention of early showman film producers, star processes antedate cinema in theatre, sport and travelling shows - and of course these were among the formative influences on cinema itself.
Richard DeCordova ; has identified some distinct phases in the emergence of pre-stardom discourses, centred on discourses on acting, and the establishment of picture personalities.
The first phase saw discussions from around within trade magazines on the distinctiveness of screen acting, coupled with naming those who pre-eminently display the requisite skills. As this kind of talk permeated outwards, so New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman interest grew in the phenomenon of film acting per se.
But because actors and actresses were hardly known off-screen, audience recognition of these traits encouraged predictable styles of performance, and the promotion New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman films as embodiments of these.
It needed the conscious promotion of named actors on billboards, lobby cards and in press advertisements to establish the presence of individuals' distinctive aura and style across many films. Overlaying this came an abiding fascination with personalities' Housewives seeking nsa Lester Prairie lives.
Fan magazines proliferated, gossip columns celebrated and damned with equal delight. This happened even as the growing companies were trying to secure respectability for their business, and therefore necessitated producing films whose themes and narratives marked them as serious, and opening cinemas Adult wants nsa Union Star more middle-class districts.
It also meant trying to control public discussions of cinema, as Paul McDonald captures: But the intensity and volume of fan interest continually undermined this effort. Gaylyn Studlar ; see also her larger study captures this in her essay on women and the fan magazines of the s, where she points up the fears about unbridled female sexuality which they both provoked and purveyed.
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Generally, it is recognised that a distinct system of stardom, associated with the established oligarchy of Hollywood studios, was in place by the didty.
Using the opportunity of the scandals around figures such as Fatty Arbuckle, and the rising demands for moral controls over films, the studios introduced vastly unequal contracts, tying stars for periods typically of seven years.Sex In Daleville Indiana.
With controls over the minutest aspects of stars' public and private lives, townneet with penalties for failure to perform, the studio system underpinned Hollywood's rise and survival even through the dark times of die Depression. Rent with arguments, challenged from time to time by organised labour see Danae Clark, and by powerful, embittered individuals perhaps most famously Bette Davies - see Spada,the system survived until die federal case against the studios - yrue which point, with varying rapidity, stars were shed.
And of course some stars did 'escape', using their economic muscle and prestige to establish a 'stars' studio' in United Artists Balio, a. Slowly, a Girls who want sex Hovingham set of structural relations emerged across the s, centred increasingly on the agents, and agencies. The big New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman International Creative Management, Creative Artists Agency and William Morris took on the job of packaging script, director, stars, financing together.
But as Barry King has shown, whereas the studio system management of a star's image was essentially a studio operation, now stars had to look after their own careers. Madisin examines stardom as a mode of labour, and distinguishes two predominant modes in which this New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman conducted: Within the former, stars were contractually bound to the studios, forbidden to use their labour and skills outside their owner's permissions.
In return, paradoxically, the work of maintaining that which constituted their labour-power - their star persona - was largely performed by the studios. Following the Paramount decree, however, stars now had to labour, as 'sub-contractors', at maintaining and upgrading their personae.
King illustrates this by comparing two parallel figures, one from each period: Clark Gable and Burt Lancaster. Where Gable follows a 'strategy of reducing all character to the star image personality' Clearly, a crucial change, with long-term consequences, came with the Paramount decision.
Jn what must also interest us are the ways in which that history has been understood within film studies.
In fact, as Dyer himself makes clear, work had been under way for some time. American studies had developed from within the psychology of identity-formation Klapp, ; Benson, Like much psychological work since, this approach suffers from a sense of New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman - as though the 'human needs' stars were supposed to exist outside history, only entering the social process when they seek fulfilment for a contemporary example, see Giles, Next, as film reviewing professionalised, a number of journalists had begun to write about die history of the phenomenon - notably Alexander Wife want real sex VA Boyce 22620, whose Stardom remains a substantial contribution.
At the same time, historians of the film industry had already begun to publish on the political economy, and legal and contractual history, of the star system see for instance Balio,and Kindem, Here, a quite different New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman of issues began to emerge, some of which have not been adequately addressed even now.Best Free Cyber Sex
Kindem, for instance, opens by emphasising the role of stars in achieving two simultaneous goals: This recognition of a need to differentiate has led to productive examination of differences within the studio oligopoly, their different preferences for kinds tdue stars. So, Gomery proposes a relationship between MGM's relative lack of cinema chains and its greater dependence on its star stable.
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Others have used this attention to business structures to tell the histories of particular studios - see for instance Ethan Mordden's There was also a strand of work New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman from the sociology tonmeet communications tradition, which was already seeking ways of studying stars' audiences see Andrew Tudor for a summary of this work - something that has only recently and with difficulty come to film studies' agendas.
Finally, there are individual and sometimes idiosyncratic studies such as Hortense Powdermaker's anthropological examination of the Hollywood 'tribe', and stardom's place within it.
Famously, he New in townmeet a true dirty Madison gentleman examination of the role of stars within representation. What is the meaning of the 'character' that stars display? How does the endless talk surrounding stars relate to their on-screen personae? What kinds of pleasure, dream or compensation for life do stars offer their audiences?
In short, what is their ideological function? Whether this was the best or only way to formulate these questions, the fact is that Dyer offered both an exciting new general approach, and a panoply of case studies including Bette Davies, Jane Fonda, Henry Fonda, John Wayne and Marlene Madisson.
He asked a whole series of detailed questions about the kinds and categories of stars, and their social and cultural functions.
Most influentially, drawing on die British cultural studies movement, Dyer developed his account of stardom as an ideological system in his second book Heavenly Bodiesthrough case studies of Marilyn Monroe, Paul Robeson and Judy Garland.